The component called “Mach-Zehnder Modulator”, which would probably be the first choice to implement directly a standard symmetric EOM, seems to be modelled by the equations given in the article “Considerations on the a-Factor of Nonideal, External Optical Mach-Zehnder Modulators” (Journal of Optical Communications, 1996). (Is it? No references at all are given in the Technical Background.) In any event, I have failed to derive the formula given in the Technical Background for the “phase difference between the two branches”. Actually, I find this model rather obscure. Could OptiWave provide further info? I also wonder why there is not a symmetric Mach-Zender modulator based on the more comprehensible reference: Cartledge, J. C., Rolland, C., Lemerle, S., and Solheim, A., “Theoretical performance of 10 Gb/s lightwave systems using a III-V semiconductor Mach-Zehnder modulator.”, IEEE Phot. Techn. Letters., 6, 282-284, (1994). This model is used for the “Lithium Niobate Mach-Zehnder Modulator”.
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