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16 QAM Transmitter

(joined March 2019)
Participant

Hello everyone
The insertion loss in each MZM in 16 QAM Transmitter is 6.6 dB . I ask if anyone interpret this loss where is come from?
Thank you

Responses (3):

    • #54303
      adnan ali
      Participant

      Hello everyone
      The insertion loss in each MZM in 16 QAM Transmitter is 6.6 dB . I ask if anyone interpret this loss where is come from?
      Thank you

    • #54370
      Profile Photo
      Ahmad Atieh
      Participant

      Hello Adnan,
      Can you please explain how did you measure the insertion loss of each MZM?
      You need to understand that the optical signal is going to be distributed over the 16 QAM signals. The electrical field of each signal of 16QAM has different amplitude and phase. If you add the optical power of all signals, you must reach the original optical signal power if there is no insertion loss set for any optical component used to create the 16QAM optical signal.
      Regards,
      Ahmad

      +1
    • #54371
      adnan ali
      Participant

      Thank you Mr Ahmed
      I fed the MZM by 0 dB that founded in 16 QAM Transmitter in one of Optisystem example. But I set the Insertion loss parameter to 0 dB after that I measure the output signal -6.6 dBm, So I find in Binary system the output is -3 dBm because MZM in the on / off situations. I know the distribution of power in 16 QAM but I need to mathematical explanations if anyone can do?
      Thank you for all

    • #54383
      Profile Photo
      Ahmad Atieh
      Participant

      Dear Adnan,
      you need to take into account the driving voltage for the MZM (bias and gain), the M-pulse generator amplitude and 3-dB coupler (3-dB loss). All of these parameters affect the overall QAM signal power. I am attaching an example showing the effect of gain on the results.
      If you need further discussion, please contact me at @optiwave.com">ahmad.atieh@optiwave.com
      Regards,
      Ahmad

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