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Hi,
I want to know the difference between coupler and power splitter in electrical component, will it be the same if we connect a optical null at one input of the coupler with that of power splitter. and want to know where should we use coupler and when splitter. and also want to know the difference among these two and 90 degree hybrid coupler. Thank you.

### Responses (9):

• #26228 Hi,
I want to know the difference between coupler and power splitter in electrical component, will it be the same if we connect a optical null at one input of the coupler with that of power splitter. and want to know where should we use coupler and when splitter. and also want to know the difference among these two and 90 degree hybrid coupler. Thank you.

• #26239 alistu
Participant

Hi Prarthana,

A power splitter simply splits the input power between all its outputs. Mathematically, it is like dividing the input signal by the number of outputs to get each output signal. Optical couplers also divide the input signals, but to get the output of optical couplers, you must use a complex transmission matrix. And in case you use one input for it, you can decide how the power should be split. And a 90 hybrid simply consists of two 180 hybrids.

Regards

• #26273 Alistu I am not grtting your line “it is like dividing the input signal by the number of outputs to get each output signal”.

And for optical coupler what kind of complex matrix you are referring unable to understand.

Regards

+1
• #26279 alistu
Participant

My sentence simply means that the power is equally divided between all the output branches. So power splitter work is quite easy to understand. If you look at the help section, you’ll see a loss parameter is also there, which affects the output signal from each of the ports as shown in the relation given as technical background, which is easy to understand either.

• #26274 Alistu, I think you are referring to matrix that is available in components pdf. I found the following
attached image.

where p is the signal of the c is coupling coefficient and  is the additional loss. If the parameter Conjugate is FALSE, then the relative phase shift between input port 1 and output port 2 = + 90 degrees (p is positive (value = 1), and the coupler will use the definition of .) When TRUE the relative phase shift between input port 1 and output port 2 = – 90 degrees (p is negative (value = -1) and the coupler will use the definition of .) The phase shift settings can also be viewed within Component results – Phase shift P1(In)/P2(Out) (deg)

1] Gerd Keiser, “Optical Fiber Communications,” Third Edition, McGraw-Hill, Higher Education, 2000.
 Christi K. Madsen and Jian H. Zhao, “Optical Filter Design and Analysis, A Signal Processing
Approach”, (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1999).

Regards

• #26276 I don’t want to go so tough please anyone explain in simpler steps.
Thanks.

Regards

• #26281 alistu
Participant

Imagine E1 and E2 are signals entering inputs 1 and 2, respectively. Then outputport1 would have:

(E1+jE2)/sqrt(2)

and outputport2 would have (sqrt = square root):

(E2+jE1)/sqrt(2).

This is very simple and is true when c=0.5. c determines the percentage of power that goes from input1 to output2, or from input2 to output1. Finally, alpha is the loss coefficient, which the whole matrix is multiplied by.

Regards

• #26286 Thank out so much, now i can have some idea about X coupler, would there be any change in power at the output terminal. Thank you.

Regards

• #26292 alistu
Participant

You’re welcome.

• #43160 stack programer
Participant

It is very good explained thanks very much
this link too can be useful. https://www.microwaves101.com/encyclopedias/couplers-and-splitters