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April 14, 2014 at 11:36 am #10273
We usually use a polarization splitter to split the optical signal to two orthogonal polarization signals, and then after separately modulating the two polarization signals, combine them using a polarization combiner before transmitting through long fiber. Normally the two polarization signals have the same amplitude. If you would like to emulate the polarization dependent loss (PDL), you could add one attenuator to one polarization to change the amplitude.